Need psychology help with Educational Psychology


1. Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding psychological theories?

a. Any single theory can be used to explain virtually every aspect of human behavior.

b. Theories are continually modified as new data emerges.

c. Theories have been proven to be true.

d. Theories will eventually be replaced by physiological (brain-based) explanations of


2. Judging from the textbook’s discussion of assessment, we can best think of classroom

assessment practices as mechanisms and procedures that:

a. are most likely to be accurate when they take the form of paper-pencil tests.

b. give us hard, indisputable facts that we can use to assign grades.

c. enable us to form tentative hypotheses about what students know and can do.

d. allow us to draw conclusions about how students’ motives and personality traits affect

their classroom performance.

3. Which one of the following alternatives best illustrates action research?

a. A high school principal conducts a survey to find out what kinds of after-school

activities students would most like to have available at their school.

b. A middle school math teacher gives his students quizzes every Friday because he

knows that frequent quizzes will encourage students to study regularly.

c. After a first-grade teacher completes a research project for her master’s thesis, she

presents her findings at a national teaching conference.

d. A university professor and two of her graduate students conduct systematic

observations of kindergartners’ turn-taking behaviors on the playground.

4. Which one of the following is the best example of a teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge?

a. understanding why water expands when it freezes

b. knowing what researchers have discovered about the effectiveness of discovery-learning

approaches to instruction

c. knowing several effective ways to teach students about negative numbers

d. making a reasonable guess as to why a particular student misbehaves just before lunch

time every day

5. The textbook offers several suggestions for studying a textbook effectively. Which one of the

following is not necessarily recommended?

a. Relate new ideas to things you already know.

b. Draw inferences from the things you read.

c. Take detailed notes on the book’s content.

d. Occasionally stop and check to make sure you understand.

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Final Examination


6. Which strategy is most likely to be effective in promoting students’ vocabulary development?

a. allowing students to make up their own meanings for words to encourage invention and


b. allowing students to use words incorrectly in the early elementary grades in order to

enhance their self-confidence about public speaking

c. teaching students the meanings of words related to topics they are studying

d. encouraging literal interpretations of such common sayings as “Look before you leap”

7. Most children in the early elementary grades think that being a “good listener” means:

a. being able to tell somebody else what the speaker has said.

b. asking the speaker a lot of questions.

c. sitting quietly and looking at the speaker.

d. remembering what the speaker says.

8. LaWanda understands that a single sentence can sometimes be interpreted in two or more

ways. For example, she realizes that the sentence “I know more beautiful women than Miss

America” has two possible interpretations: “I know women who are more beautiful than Miss

America is” or “I know more beautiful women than Miss America knows.” LaWanda’s

appreciation for the double meanings of some sentences reflects:

a. metalinguistic awareness.

b. a sensitive period in language development.

c. pragmatics.

d. figurative language.

9. Research regarding learning a second language yields which one of the following conclusions?

a. The ability to learn a second language is greatest before age 4.

b. The ability to learn a second language increases with age until adolescence, when it

starts to decline.

c. At this point, it appears that there is no single “best” time to learn a second language.

d. The ability to learn a second language increases with age until adulthood, when it

starts to decline.

10. In North America, which approach appears to be most effective for teaching English speakers

a second language?

a. Immerse them in the second language, having them hear and speak it exclusively in all

classroom activities.

b. Let them talk with native speakers of the language who should alternate between using

English and the other language.

c. Wait until they reach Piaget’s formal operations stage so that they can better grasp the

subtleties of the new language.

d. Teach it to them before kindergarten if possible because they quickly lose their ability

to learn a second language fluently after that.Final Examination 7 PSY 430 Educational Psychology

11. Three of the following strategies should be effective in working with English language

learners. Which one is unlikely to be effective?

a. Teach reading skills almost exclusively by using books written in English rather than in

students’ native language.

b. When teaching academic subject matter, make a very gradual transition from students’

native language to English—perhaps a transition that takes 5 to 7 years to complete.

c. Especially in the early years of English instruction, speak more slowly and clearly than

you might otherwise.

d. When students work in small, cooperative groups, encourage them to use their native

language if doing so helps them communicate with one another more effectively.

12. Which one of the following statements characterizes both Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories

of cognitive development, as well as psychologists’ beliefs about the nature of language


a. Children are actively involved in their own learning.

b. Development involves both assimilation and accommodation.

c. Children and adults think in basically the same ways.

d. Development involves a series of stages.

13. Three of the following statements are accurate about how motivation and moral behavior may

be interrelated. Which statement is not accurate?

a. Students are more likely to behave morally if doing so doesn’t cause them much


b. Students are more likely to behave morally if they know they will gain others’ approval

by doing so.

c. Children become less generous with age, apparently because they gain greater

appreciation for the value of money.

d. Some adolescents incorporate a commitment to helping others into their sense of self.

14. Carol Gilligan’s theory of moral development differs from Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory in that


a. proposes that boys exhibit more rapid moral development than girls.

b. focuses more on a “human rights” perspective of moral development.

c. focuses more on the development of caring and compassion.

d. proposes that girls exhibit more rapid moral development than boys.

15. Which one of the following statements illustrates induction as a strategy for promoting moral


a. “You destroyed Martha’s paper, and now she has to stay late to finish rewriting it.”

b. “If you don’t help with clean-up, you don’t get to go out to recess.”

c. “You mustn’t take Ruthie’s paper or I won’t like you any more.”

d. “Your behavior is not allowed in this classroom. As a consequence, you’ll have to stay

after school today.”8 Final Examination PSY 430 Educational Psychology

16. When asking students to wrestle with a moral dilemma, three of the following strategies might

be effective in promoting students’ moral development. Which one probably will not promote

their moral development?

a. eventually telling students how morally advanced people would respond to the dilemma

b. asking students to consider their reasons for making the moral decisions they do

c. encouraging students to volunteer their individual perspectives on a moral issue

d. encouraging students to consider all sides of a moral issue

17. Which one of the following variables is essential for the development of sense of self, social

skills and moral reasoning (i.e., for all three)?

a. social interaction

b. postconventional reasoning

c. moral dilemmas

d. withdrawal of love for inappropriate behavior

18. Which teacher is doing the most to foster the overall personal and social development of his


a. Mr. Bakewell ensures that his students will obey all of his strict rules by imposing

severe consequences for failure.

b. Mr. Winters treats well-behaved students with warmth and kindness and ignores unruly


c. Mr. Mecham gives his students complete freedom in the classroom so that they will

learn to cooperate with one another.

d. Mr. Poller conveys the message that he likes his students and wants them to succeed

in the classroom.

19. Three of the following depict challenges that children from lower-income homes are likely to

face. Which situation is least typical?

a. Thomas’s only meal of the day is the free lunch he gets at school.

b. Theresa is sometimes late for school because her father and mother are fighting

about overdue bills and thus are preoccupied when it is time to take her to school.

c. Trina rarely comes to school on Tuesday, because her family likes to take advantage of

the free-admission policy that many city museums have on Tuesdays.

d. Timothy’s family moves frequently, requiring him to change schools at least once a year. Final Examination 9 PSY 430 Educational Psychology

20. Compared to their wealthier peers, students from low-income families are less likely to attend

and graduate from college. One reason, of course, is that students from low-income families

have fewer financial resources. But another important reason is that many public schools in

low-income neighborhoods are of poor quality. Three of the following characteristics are

typical of schools in low-income school districts. Which characteristic is not typical?

a. outdated and poorly maintained equipment

b. lower expectations for students’ achievement

c. little or no discipline for serious behavior problems

d. fewer opportunities to engage in advanced thinking skills

21. Although students from middle-SES families have many advantages that students from

low-SES families don’t have, in some respects students from low-SES have the upper hand.

Which one of the following has been shown to be more true of students from low-income

families than of students from middle-income families?

a. ability to improvise using everyday objects

b. facility in making correct change from a dollar

c. skill in talking respectfully to people from diverse backgrounds

d. knowledge of how to use a map to get around town

22. The school principal tells you that Mary, a new student who just joined your classroom this

morning, currently lives at a homeless shelter. Which one of the following strategies does the

textbook not recommend for helping Mary succeed in your classroom?

a. Pair Mary with a classmate who can show her around the school building and introduce

her to other students.

b. Ask Mary’s parents to meet with you in your classroom after school.

c. Enlist the aid of volunteers to provide tutoring for Mary at the shelter.

d. Find some school supplies, including a clipboard to write on, that Mary can use to do

her homework at the shelter.

23. Which one of the following students best fits the pattern associated with being at risk?

a. Sal started kindergarten a year later than his peers because his parents wanted to be

sure he was ready for school.

b. André isn’t doing very well in any of his classes; he will have to pull up his grades or he

won’t be allowed to continue to participate in varsity football.

c. Evan is doing poorly in all of his classes because of repeated absenteeism and failure

to turn in assignments.

d. Wesley has recently failed sophomore algebra, and he is frustrated because he now has

to go to summer school.10 Final Examination PSY 430 Educational Psychology

24. Three of the following strategies are likely to help students at risk stay in school. Which one is

not likely to do so?

a. Communicate your expectation that students can do well and that you will help them

achieve instructional objectives.

b. Identify students at risk as early as possible in order to provide long-term academic


c. Assign activities that have obvious relevance to students’ own lives and needs.

d. Discourage students from participating in extracurricular activities so that they can

focus on getting their grades up.

25. Nota was born with a severe hearing loss. Now in second grade, she is fluent in American Sign

Language. However, her teachers are concerned that her reading skills are less developed than

those of her classmates and that she has very limited knowledge about the outside world.

Which one of the following explanations for Nota’s difficulties is most likely to be true?

a. In addition to having a hearing loss, Nota probably has a language-related learning


b. Because she has had less exposure to oral communication than her classmates, Nota’s

development in these areas has been delayed.

c. Nota’s general intelligence was probably affected by the same condition that caused

her hearing loss.

d. Nota is probably depressed about her disability and therefore is less motivated to learn

than her peers.

26. Which one of the following teachers is using a strategy recommended in the textbook for

working with students who have physical and sensory challenges?

a. Ms. Sadatmand builds new supply shelves so that Harvey can access all classroom

materials from his wheelchair.

b. Ms. Solomon always gives Yolanda a reduced workload. Although Yolanda is capable of

doing all the work, she tires easily.

c. Because Jamal is unable to speak, Mr. Christensen allows him to use an augmentative

communication device during language arts. Mr. Christensen discourages use of the

device during lessons in other subject areas because he doesn’t want Jamal to become

overly dependent on technology.

d. Mr. Nishamura keeps an eye on Sarah so that he can anticipate when she needs help.

By offering help before she has to ask, he saves her considerable embarrassment.

27. On average, how do children who are gifted compare to their peers in social and emotional


a. They tend to be above-average in social development and most are emotionally well


b. They tend to be less mature than their peers and more prone to emotional problems.

c. They tend to be about the same as their peers in emotional adjustment and social


d. They tend to be loners, preferring such solitary activities as reading or computer games.Final Examination 11 PSY 430 Educational Psychology

28. The textbook recommends three of the following strategies for adapting instruction for

students who are gifted. Which one does it not recommend?

a. Form study groups of students with similar interests and abilities.

b. Find outside resources through which students can pursue their interests.

c. Ask students to be patient while their classmates master instructional objectives.

d. Modify class assignments so that they encourage complex thinking processes.

29. Students from diverse cultural backgrounds won’t necessarily show their exceptional gifts and

talents on traditional intelligence tests. Three of the following characteristics may be

indicative of giftedness in such students. Which characteristic is least likely to indicate


a. seeing connections between two very different topics

b. learning quickly

c. insisting on perfection at all times

d. solving problems in unique and creative ways

30. Three of the following teachers are using strategies that are recommended for teaching

students with special needs. Which one is using a strategy that is not recommended?

a. At the beginning of each year, Ms. Toor identifies one set of class rules for nondisabled

students and another, more lenient set of rules for students who have disabilities.

b. Mr. DeWolfe stays in close touch with Katie’s parents so that they can be consistent in

their expectations for her at school and at home.

c. Mr. Hartell makes sure that at least once a month his students with special needs get

a chance to make some choices about what goals they will work toward and what topics

they will study.

d. Ms. Gagnon begins each year by working hard to get to know the strengths,

weaknesses and interests of each of her students. This helps her to adapt her

instruction to the unique needs of each student.

31. Ms. Iwata has a long-term goal for her science students: to consider what they have learned

about science as they deal with issues and problems in their daily lives. What teaching

strategy will best help her students retrieve relevant scientific principles when they need them

the most?

a. Maximize the use of abstract ideas and minimize the use of concrete materials.

b. Make sure that students study those principles in a no-anxiety situation.

c. Maximize the use of concrete materials and minimize the use of abstract ideas.

d. Associate those principles with as many real-life situations as possible.12 Final Examination PSY 430 Educational Psychology

32. Which one of the following examples best illustrates situated cognition in action?

a. It doesn’t occur to Jennie that she can use algebra to help her solve a problem in her

physics class.

b. Eleanor enjoys physical education class because she always feels more energized


c. Lucinda doesn’t enjoy her history class because her teacher expects students to

memorize a lot of names, dates, and places.

d. When Rachel learns the concept of momentum, she immediately recalls a variety of

phenomena that the concept can explain.

33. Three of the following strategies should help students remember classroom subject matter

over the long run. Considering guidelines presented in the textbook, which one will not help


a. engaging in meaningful learning by relating the material to a situation in which they

are likely to use it

b. elaborating by drawing inferences from the things they study

c. preventing interference by learning each piece of information at a different time

d. reviewing the material periodically over the course of several days or weeks

34. Nora was thinking about something else the day her teacher explained the difference between

the words “between” and “among,” so she has trouble using these two prepositions correctly.

Nora’s difficulty “remembering” the difference between the two words can probably best be

explained as:

a. decay in long-term memory over time.

b. failure to retrieve from long-term memory.

c. reconstruction error during retrieval.

d. failure to store in long-term memory.

35. Jenny is taking a quiz that asks for the chemical symbols of 20 elements. She remembers

19 of them but cannot remember the symbol for mercury. As she walks home from school,

she suddenly remembers that the symbol for mercury is Hg. Jenny’s memory problem during

the quiz can best be explained in terms of:

a. interference.

b. reconstruction error.

c. too limited long-term memory search.

d. decay.Final Examination 13 PSY 430 Educational Psychology

36. Three of the following statements accurately describe the kinds of diversity in cognitive

processes that researchers have identified. Which statement is not accurate?

a. On average, girls can more easily maintain their attention in class than boys.

b. Students’ differing background experiences will affect their ability to meaningfully

learn a particular idea or topic.

c. Children in some cultures view wait time after a question as a sign of respect for the

person asking the question.

d. Children in developing countries (e.g., in Africa and Central America) are more

accustomed to list-learning tasks than children in North American schools.

37. Three of the following teachers are following recommended practices for teaching concepts.

Which one is not?

a. Mr. Adams teaches the concept “fruit” by showing examples of many different fruits

and many different nonfruits.

b. Mr. Carlson teaches the concept “vertebrate” by giving a definition of the concept.

c. After a lesson on the concept “carbohydrate,” Mr. Danielson asks students to give their

own examples of the concept.

d. Mr. Benito teaches the concept “reptile” by limiting class discussion to dinosaurs—

animals that students find especially interesting.

38. Wendy sees a picture of a beach and then later tries to draw the picture from memory. She

draws shells on the beach even though the beach in the picture had no shells. Using

cognitive psychologists’ concept of schema, how could we explain Wendy’s error?

a. Wendy has a schema for shells but does not have one for beaches.

b. Wendy’s schema of how a typical beach looks includes shells.

c. Wendy has a schema for beaches but does not have one for shells.

d. Wendy’s schemas of beaches and shells are interfering with each other.

39. Four boys read this line from a story: “The two men entered the restaurant and ordered

hamburgers.” Which one of the boys is clearly using a script while reading the story?

a. Bob is guessing that the men probably have evil motives.

b. Colin wonders what the men look like.

c. Alex assumes that the men probably looked at a menu before ordering.

d. Devon thinks the men should be more careful about their cholesterol intake.

40. Three of the following strategies should help promote conceptual change. Which one probably

will not?

a. Have students learn definitions of important concepts to automaticity.

b. Identify students’ misconceptions about a topic and address them during instruction.

c. Pique students’ interest in classroom subject matter.

d. Identify and build on the parts of students’ understandings that are accurate.14 Final Examination PSY 430 Educational Psychology

41. Imagine you are a biology teacher who is teaching students about the nature of evolution. You

discover that some of your students refuse to believe that modern human beings evolved from

more primitive life forms, explaining that their religious beliefs tell them that God created

people. If you follow the textbook’s suggestion regarding such a situation, you would be most

likely to:

a. present more compelling evidence for evolution than you would otherwise.

b. ask students to write an essay in which they give their reasons for not believing that

evolution occurred.

c. help students understand evolution theory, even though they may not agree with this


d. Omit the topic of evolution from the class curriculum, replacing it with a more in-depth

look at the nature of DNA.

42. Three of the following statements are true with regard to students with special needs. Which

statement is false?

a. Students with advanced cognitive development typically have the same amount of

knowledge that their classmates have but are able to retrieve it more quickly.

b. Students with general delays in cognitive and social functioning have a difficult time

making sense of a message when the message is ambiguous or incomplete.

c. Students with social or behavioral problems often misinterpret social situations and

therefore respond inappropriately to them.

d. Students with general delays in cognitive development tend to have a more limited

knowledge base than their classmates.

43. Three of the following are accurate statements about epistemic beliefs. Which statement is

not accurate?

a. Students who believe that learning is a slow, gradual process are more likely to persist

in their efforts to understand classroom material.

b. Students who view learning as an active, constructive process are more likely to

undergo conceptual change when it is warranted.

c. Young children are apt to believe that conflicting points of view on a topic may be

equally valid; as they get older, they become increasingly convinced that one

perspective is almost invariably more valid than others.

d. As students move through the high school years, some of them increasingly begin to

realize that mastering academic subject matter involves understanding concepts and

their interrelationships rather than memorizing discrete facts.

44. Imagine you are a high school principal who wants students to develop effective study

strategies before they graduate. With research about effective study skills programs in mind,

which one of the following approaches would be the best one to take?

a. Purchase textbooks that are about two years below students’ present reading levels.

b. Have a one-semester study skills course that all students take in twelfth grade.

c. Have teachers incorporate study skills training into the specific academic courses they


d. Have a one-semester study skills course that all students take in ninth grade.Final Examination 15 PSY 430 Educational Psychology

45. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Because they learn so quickly, children who are gifted rarely use effective study


b. Students with learning disabilities often benefit from explicit instruction about effective

learning strategies.

c. Some students with social or behavioral problems have few effective strategies to help

them learn academic subject matter.

d. Students who show significant delays in general cognitive development also show

delays in metacognitive development.

46. Which one of the following is the best example of critical thinking as the textbook defines the


a. Muriel asks her teacher, “Why do we have to start school so early in the morning? I

have trouble thinking clearly before ten o’clock in the morning.”

b. Rachel mumbles to herself as she reads her history book, “Why does the year 1929

sound so familiar? Oh, yes, now I know. That’s the year the stock market crashed.”

c. Justin says to his friend Victor, “I think I can guess why you’re feeling sad today.”

d. Lorenzo complains to his teacher, “When the textbook author talks about the

importance of recycling, he doesn’t explain how the advantages outweigh the


47. Three of the following teaching strategies should promote critical thinking. Which strategy,

although beneficial in other ways, will not necessarily promote critical thinking skills?

a. Portray the sciences and social sciences as disciplines that will evolve as new evidence

comes in.

b. Ask students to read a persuasive essay and look for possible flaws in the author’s line

of reasoning.

c. Have students debate a controversial issue by taking a perspective in direct opposition

to what they actually believe.

d. Have students relate new information to things they already know about the world.

48. Three of the following are accurate statements about how higher-level cognitive processes

might be different among students with diverse backgrounds and abilities. Which statement is


a. Students with mental retardation tend to have trouble transferring what they learn in

school to new situations.

b. Students who have been brought up in a culture that encourages respect for elders are

less likely to engage in critical thinking.

c. Students who have consistently lived in a single culture tend to be more creative than

students who have had regular exposure to two or more cultures.

d. On average, students with learning disabilities have more difficulty with academic

problem-solving tasks than their nondisabled peers.16 Final Examination PSY 430 Educational Psychology

49. Three of the following statements are consistent with the textbook’s recommendations

regarding the effective use of reinforcement. Which statement is not consistent with the

textbook’s recommendations?

a. Monitor students’ progress when using reinforcement to improve behavior.

b. Describe desired behaviors concretely.

c. Use the same reinforcer for everyone.

d. Be explicit about what behaviors lead to what consequences.

50. Leonard rarely says nice things to anyone else. Using behaviorist terminology, we can say that:

a. Leonard has little tolerance for such behavior.

b. Leonard will benefit only from intrinsic reinforcement for such behavior.

c. Leonard’s baseline for this behavior is very low.

d. Leonard’s social skills are generalizing to a different situation.

51. Mr. Johnson wants a hyperactive boy to be able to sit quietly for at least 15 minutes at a time.

To do this, he begins praising the boy for sitting still for one minute, then for two minutes,

and then only for four minutes, and so on. Mr. Johnson’s strategy reflects which one of the

following concepts?

a. discrimination learning

b. intermittent reinforcement

c. shaping

d. generalization

52. Vanessa frequently complains of getting terrible headaches and therefore ends up at the

nurse’s office several times a week. Two different physicians have been unable to find a cause

for Vanessa’s headaches and Vanessa’s parents report that their daughter rarely has headaches

at home. Vanessa is falling further and further behind in her schoolwork, so Vanessa’s teacher

and parents meet with the nurse and school psychologist to brainstorm possible solutions to

Vanessa’s problem. The school psychologist suggests that the teacher keep track of the

occasions when Vanessa complains about a headache. Two weeks later, the teacher reports

that all of Vanessa’s complaints occur just before a test or difficult assignment. Suddenly the

teacher and parents begin to suspect that perhaps Vanessa complains of headaches as a way

of getting out of difficult schoolwork. Here we see the initial steps in a process known as:

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